Ebonite (also called vulcanite) is a hard, moldable, polished dark colored
(ranging from brown to black) early rubber. Ebonite was produced by adding
sulfur to vulcanized rubber. It was used for combs, ornaments, and buttons.
Ebonite is sometimes confused with gutta percha.
Ebony is a hard, dark, dense wood sometimes used in jewelry.
The Edwardian period (also known as the Belle Epoque) was the time of
the reign of Edward VII of England (1901-1910). Edwardian jewelry is delicate
and elegant. Edwardian designs frequently use bows and filagrees. Pearls
and diamonds were also frequently used.
The Eisenberg company creates beautiful, high-quality costume jewelry.
It was founded by Jonas Eisenberg in Chicago, Illinois in 1942, and is
still in business. Originally, they made dresses with ornate buttons (made
by the Ora company), and expanded into the costume jewelry business. The
brooch above is a classic sterling piece from the 1940's. Eisenberg marks
include (script) E, Eisenberg Original, and Eisenberg Ice (current).
Eilat stone is only found in King Solomon's copper mines on the Red Sea,
near Eilat, Israel. This opaque green mineral is composed of azurite,
malachite, turquoise, and chrysocolla. The hardness of this copper-based
stone varies. There are many variations on its spelling, including Eliat,
Elat, and Ellat.
Electroplating (also called Galvanotechnics after its inventor, Luigi
Galvani) is a process in which one metal is coated with another metal
using electricity. In jewelry, inexpensive metals are frequently electroplated
with more expensive metals, like gold (gold plating), copper (electrocoppering),
rhodium (rhodanizing), chromium (chromium plating), or silver (silver
plating). The thickness of the metal coat varies. Electrogilded coating
is the thinnest (less than 0.000007 inches thick); gold-cased metals have
a coating thicker that 0.000007 inches.
Electrum is an amber-colored alloy of gold and silver that was used in
ancient times. Electrum is also an alloy used in medieval times consisting
of copper (50%), nickel (30%) and zinc (20%).
An Elie ruby is actually a pyrope garnet (and not a ruby at all).
Email (French for enamel) is a method in which enamel is applied to metal.
It can be applied in many different ways, including cloisonné,
champlevé, and plique à jour.
Embossing is a method of surface decoration in which a design is raised
slightly above the surface. Sheets of metal, leather, and plastic can
Emeralds are a very hard, green precious stone (beryl, Be3Al2Si6O18, colored
by chromium and some vanadium impurities). Flaws and cloudiness (called
jardin) are very common in emeralds, so many emeralds are oiled, irradiatied,and
dyed to improve their look. Synthetic emeralds (developed by Carroll Chatham
in the 1930's) have fewer imperfections and are very hard to distinguish
from natural emeralds. Emeralds belong the beryl group of stones which
also includes aquamarines, morganite, and chrysoberyl). Emeralds have
a hardness of 7-8 and a specific gravity of 2.6 - 2.8. Emerald (and all
forms of beryl) have large, perfect, six-sided crystals. Emeralds were
long thought to have healing powers, especially for eyesight. During the
renaissance, emeralds were used as a test for friendship among the aristocracy;
an emerald given to a friend would remain perfect as long as the friendsip
Emerald cut stones have a girdle that is rectangular with truncated corners.
Emerald cuts are frequently used on emeralds and diamonds.
Emmons Jewelers, Inc., of Newark, NY, is a costume jewelry company that
was founded by Charles H. Stuart. Emmons produced high-quality pieces
under the marks Emmons, and Emmolite (and later, the Sarah Coventry line).
Emmons jewelry was only sold at home jewelry parties organized by an Emmons
representatives. The Emmons mark was first used in March, 1949. The Emmolite
mark (for pieces made from base metal) was first used in January, 1955.
During the late 1950's, the Emmons company started using the Sarah Coventry
name. Emmons costume jewelry is very collectible and can be difficult
Enamel is a glassy substance (powdered glass with colorants) fused onto
metal using heat (see cloisonné, champlevé, guilloche, and
plique à jour).
Engraving is a method of surface decoration in which a design is etched
into the surface with a sharp tool.
Enhanced stones are stones that have been treated to improve their color,
clarity, finish, strength, or other characteristics. Some common enhancements
are heat-treatment, irradiation, coating the surface, filling cracks,
oiling, surface diffusion (coating the surface then applying heat), bleaching,
ESPO and ESPO-FLEX are the marks of Esposito Jewelry, Inc., a costume
jewelry company located in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. These marks
were first used in 1951.
An etched finish on a metal's surface reduces the metal's reflectivity.
It is done by using harsh chemicals to eat into the surface or by cutting
into the surface using a sharp tool.
An eternity ring is a narrow ring with gemstones set all around
Ancient Etruscan jewelry has intricate and beautiful designs; most is
made of gold. The Etruscans employed a lot of delicate granulation (n
which tiny beads of gold are soldered to the surface to form a pattern)
and openwork filagree (in which filagree patterns are not applied over
sheet metal). The Etruscans lived in Northern Italy for hundreds of years
beginning in the late 8th century B.C.
An etui (also called a necessaire) is a tiny, decorative, cylindrical-shaped
case that was often carried on a chatelaine. The etui was used to carry
small "necessary" items like pencils, scissors, manicure set,
or spectacles. The etui was first used in the 1720's.
Eugene was a jewelry designer who worked for Miriam Haskell and later
started his own company around 1950. Eugene pieces were produced until
the 1960's. These pieces are often complex, having beads and pearls, rhinestones,
or enamel work.
The European cut (also known as the old European cut) is an old, round
diamond cut that is similar to but less bright than the newer brilliant
cut. The European cut has a very small table and heavy crown.
EverGreen (R) is a trademarked type of diffusion-treated topaz. This deep
green stone is produced by heating a cut, colorless topaz with coloring
chemicals (mineral oxides), resulting in a thin layer of green coating
the outside of the stone.
An eyepin is a thin wire with a loop at one end; it is used for linking
The Excelsior is the second or third largest diamond (depending on whether
or not the Braganza diamond was actually a diamond). This irregular-shaped
blue-white diamond was roughly 995 carats. It was found in l893 by a worker
at the De Beers mine at Jagersfontein, Orange Free State, South Africa.
The Excelsior diamond was cut in 1904 by I.J. Asscher and Company of Amsterdam
into 21 stones, including a 69.80-carat marquise, an 18-carat marquise
stone (which was displayed at the l939 World's Fair by the De Beers company),
and many other stones.